Reopening the chronology regarding the birth of Pancasila, there were three original ideas to think about, which developed by the founding fathers of Indonesia. They are Muhammad Yamin, Prof. Supomo and Ir. Sukarno. The results of their thinking have been become as the ideal and constitutional basis of the unitary state of the Republic of Indonesia. This paper only describes an original idea of Muhammad Yamin, adopted from Wetik (2010). Insya Allah, the author will present a description of other founding fathers thought in the separate paper.
Frame history of the birth of Pancasila started when there were signs the defeat of Japan in Asia Pacific in the Second World War. At that time, it has established Board of Inquiry for efforts on Independence Preparation of Indonesia (BPUPKI) which is chaired by Dr. Radjiman Wedyodiningrat. A board member was 58 people and is divided into several sections including a basic law committee. The later section was also called the constitution committee, whose 19 members chaired by Ir. Sukarno. In the next development, the committee formed a small committee as constitution formulator chaired by Prof. Dr. Mr. Soepomo.
BPUPKI has performed twice of hearing. First was at the date of May 28 to June 1st, 1945 to discuss the foundation of the state. Second, on December 10 until July 17, 1945 to discuss the form of the state, territory, citizenship, the draft basic law, economics and finance, defense of the country, and education. BPUPKI also conducted an unofficial meeting between the first and second hearing to discuss a preambule draft of the 1945 constitution led by Ir. Sukarno.
In the first hearing, BPUPKI scheduled for general standpoint about the foundation of the state as follows. On May 29, 1945 would present the speaker, i.e. Muhammad Yamin, Margono Sosrodiningrat, Wiranata Kusumah, Sumitro, Woerjaningrat, Surjo, Soesanto, Dasaad, Rooseno and Aris P. Among the speakers was just Mr. Muhammad Yamin who delivered a speech. On May 30, 1945 there were scheduled speakers, i.e. Moch. Hatta, Agus Salim, Samsudin, Wongsonegoro, Soerachman, Abdul Kadir, Abdul Rahim Soewandi, Soekirman and Soetarjo. However, it was only Moch. Hatta who spoke for about an hour. Hatta’s text of his speech was not documented, and is still in the streamlining of historical documents. On May 31, 1945, it was scheduled speakers Muhammad Yamin, Sanusi, Soehardjo, Sukarno, and Hadikoesoemo, but only Prof. Dr. Soepomo and Mr. Muhammad Yamin delivered speech. Then on June 1, 1945, it was scheduled speakers Baswedan, Muzakir, Ir. Soekarno, Latuharhary, and Soekarjo. However, it was only Ir. Sukarno delivering a speech.
So, during the first official hearing, which delivered a speech was Muhammad Yamin, Moch. Hatta, Prof. Dr. Mr. Soepomo, and Sukarno. However, it was only three speeches documented, namely Mr. Muhammad Yamin, Prof. Dr. Soepomo, and Ir. Sukarno. Mr. Muhammad Yamin had twice addressed, but only his first major speech on May 29, 1945 which relates to the foundation of state.
Herewith is the substance of the speech Muhammad Yamin (on May 29, 1945), which consists of five thought principals of foundation of the state. Yamin did not give a spesific name to these five thought principals.
Yamin declared that a new state should be nation-state (Staat Nationale or National Etat). Within the concept of nation states, Indonesia has upper and lower states. The lower state adopts or appreciates the experience of approximately 300 small kingdoms and the regional uniqueness in which the local people were not connected each other. Characteristic of the lower state contain local culture and civilization of heritage of our ancestors long ago. The lower state adopts the governance mechanisms based on the experience of Sriwijaya and Majapahit glory days. The combination of the lower and upper state characters is a specific condition of Indonesia, so no need to imitate or adopt the basic concept of the state from other countries.
Referring to the fact and character that the people civilization, the customary law and other uniqueness in the lower and upper state, it is then compiled into an inside of state structure which actually become the foundation of the state. The principal basis of the state appointed based on the Indonesian civilization character. The desire to be united as a nation become blueprint to the new state would be declared.
The new state formed does not just mean Indonesia’s independence or escape from the restraints of colonialism, but also wanted to arrange new society in an independent state. The independence would bring the country’s sovereignty internally and externally. Internally, independence and sovereignty give protection to the nation, people and its property within state boundaries. Externally, independence and sovereignty give a plentiful opportunity to the Indonesian state to organize their relations with other countries.
State sovereignty of the people of Indonesia contains the universal aspect of humanity. State sovereignty can be part of the membership on family of nations in the world. The membership set (diplomatic) relations between sovereign states, based on the universal humanity that contains humanism and internationalism for all nations.
3. Almighty God principle
Indonesian people that will shape the state independence are noble and civilized nation and in civilization has Almighty God principle. Therefore, the Indonesia country that is free and prosperous is based on Almighty God. God will protect the independent state of Indonesia. This divine principle has been rooted to culture and civilization of nations since long ago. Indonesian people believe that all efforts are directed towards the good of the country, including forming the new state always got protection from God Almighty.
Journey of independence movement pioneered by Budi Utomo, got sympathy and greeting from all the people of the archipelago. This movement combines a huge potential of the archipelago. The whole area leaders are willing to come together to prepare for independence. These are all the blessings and mercy of God Almighty. Movements like this before always failed because the entire nation potential is not involved, whereas only carry the interests of some regions.
Democracy load points of consultative, representative, and wisdom mind. Consultation implies that “All matters should be discussed”, according to Quran Asysyura, 38. This means that with the consultation consent, then (i) human beings will always walk the path of God, (ii) state management burden is not carried by one person, but many people might be shared, and (iii) consultation minimize mistakes and avoid the state of individual error.
One form of consultation in the form of consensus (mufakat) already exists in rural communities since long ago. This is reflected in the structure or composition of the village since ancient times. The basis of this consensus is not lost by the influence of Hindu, Buddhist and Islamic religions. With the inclusion of the influence of religion to Indonesia, the consensus culture is growing bloom.
Representative. Capabilities and skills of the Indonesian nation in the management the state structure have existed since thousands of years by looking at the 21 000 villages in Java, 700 villages in Minangkabau, the composition of the nine countries in Malaya, as well as in Borneo, the Bugis, Ambon, Minahasa, and elsewhere. The composition of this alliance is not degraded by the influence of Hindu, Buddhist, and Feudalism and colonialism. Village has not change, although its composition varies in accordance with the changing times. The village is one of the milestones of indigenous fellowship with little bit difference in the whole of Indonesia. In this arrangement elected people who hold power and be a representative for the larger structure. Representatives deliberate on this for things bigger and more spacious. Representatives not only strengthen the fellowship of customary law in the lower state, but are a guideline in formulation the nation wants and drafting administration in the middle and upper state. These representatives will be the soul connections of the people, and the basic state structure of representation is the eternal basis according to the Indonesian culture.
Wisdom. Yamin declared the formation of a new country is an innovation and not be separated from the deity and cultural (indigenous heritage) of Indonesia. New state of Indonesia should have been prepared on logic and healthy nationalism, by eliminating the bad characters such as the legacy of feudalism and colonialism. The role of the organization’s independence movement, thought and energy contribution in the independence movement became an important element of the birth of wisdom to form a nationalism of Indonesia. Wisdom has the properties (i) anti federalism, monarchy, liberalism, democracy, autocracy and the west, (ii) reject all kinds of colonialism, and (iii) reject the idea of Istibdadi government, khilaah government, and filsafatiyah government. Therefore, the form of the state is desired as follow:(1) The state of unity that is formed on of and inside the body of the Indonesian nation (2) Sovereignty is respected by region and people of Indonesia. (3) State of Indonesia based on consultation between the knowledgeable and intelligent person who is elected based on the idea of representative principle. Consultation, selection, and the renewal of the mind become the basis of the appointment and termination of all state affairs. (4) Negari, villages, and all the fellowship of customary law was amended by way of nationalism are the composition foot of the lower state. (5) The central government is formed around the head of state consisting of vice of head, ministries, the Central Hall of Parliament, (6) Between the upper and lower state is shaped in the middle state as a form of regional government. (7) State of the Indonesian people running division of labor based on deconcentration and decentralization principle and not on federalism. (8) State of the Indonesian people became members of the sovereign consultative in nations worldwide.
5. Social Welfare (Social Justice).
Formation of a new country is not intended as a bond that will confine the life space of the people or be seen as autocracy or oligarchy. People should greet with joyful because it will raise the dignity and civilization, to provide guarantee in the constitution that there are great changes involving the upper, middle, and lower state as well as the entire economy life.
To Deepen the Yamin’s Thought
Yamin’s five thought principals can be understood as the view of a fighter who cares about the future of their nation, which is entering the signs of independence. Breadth of Yamin’s view should be recognized and more prominent than other BPUPKI members. His perspective as a nationalist is formed in line with his life journey that moved on Java, though he comes from Sawahlunto, West Sumatra. During that time, he was also socializing with people from different cultures, from indigenous Indonesian people to the teachers from the Netherlands or Europe. Cognitive map of his thinking is very wide as a wide range of science backgrounds he undertakes, including mastering different languages. It was more complete because it also became a writer as well as a poet. He wrote plays, essays, or a historical novel.
A writer usually has a broad knowledge. Sensitivity for tracing information is very high, from the books, writings, or on the basis of experience senses. The author easily reveals the gap between normative matters and the facts. He easily capture the things that are going on and become community needs. Then he wrote ideas for improvements or to assist the community based on the conception and academic experience. That is why many writers whose career continues to become political figures who finally received the mandate to lead the nation. Almost all leaders of the independence movement started writing tracks, including Muhammad Yamin.
Yamin’s five thought principals are not much known by the people. Yamin’s popularity is far below Sukarno or Hatta. But in fact, the five thoughts have been recognized underlying (in detail) the concept building of the Indonesia country. Today, his thought was implemented a lot of in administrative buildings in Indonesia. Perhaps because it was not ‘named’ so many people to forget or ignore his thoughts. Later the more popular is initiated by Sukarno’s Pancasila (the date of June 1, 1945), which consists of five precepts, which contains material similar to Yamin’s thought. Yamin showed better things in developing the concept, but Sukarno has better in packaging and communicating ideas in BPUPKI sessions. The five thought principles of Yamin are discussed as follow.
Following the discussion of Nationality thought shows that Indonesia has a history capital in this state. Character and experience of state (600 years of Sriwijaya and Majapahit 300 years old) was built on the civilization of the indigenous Indonesian culture. However, experience in the long period it is based on national values, strong and visionary leadership and pluralistic character. The character was intended to develop as an Indonesian national value. Yamin confidently declared that the new state must be self-implementing countries with the good management of state based on the character of the Indonesian nation, not to imitate or adopt the experience of other countries.
The thought of humanity shown that the new state’s mission is to develop a universal human value which is based on a vision of independence. The mission is certainly very precious because it implies the equality rights of humanity and nationhood, and regulates relations between peoples of the world. The mission is to show a maturity the Yamin’s thought, an Indonesian bumiputera who was able to show global thinking based on humanitarian aspects. At that time, the phenomenon of imperialism dominated the entire world. Yamin’s voice (of course along with Sukarno and his friends) loudly fills enlightenment and uplift spirit of the nations that were colonized. By chance, Indonesia declared independence first, so that is considered as a pioneer the rise of independence countries of Asia and Africa.
Almighty God principle also reflects a deep gratitude. God has united components from different aspects of the nation, including region, ethnicity, religion, and culture in the sense of kinship with compatriots and have the awareness to establish one state. God also has opened the minds of the founders of the nation (through its representatives in BPUPKI) to consciously put the national interest above their own interests.
The main idea underlying democracy has addressed many things about the concept of state administration, which is based on instinct as a modern-minded Muslim and nationalist at the same time. A blend of characters that is built from the experience of socializing with so many people. That can not be separated from his background who had studied the Dutch and East literature (include learning Greek, Latin, Kaei, and ancient history), agricultural sciences, and law. Yamin realize that the values of customary law are still real, and therefore he appreciated it into the nationalism concept of lower state and decentralization.
Furthermore, Yamin also submitted that the prerequisites of building a healthy nationalism is also followed by a sound mind. He gave the bottom line that the consultation among the knowledgeable and intelligent person who is selected based on the idea of representation. He certainly understood that an inappropriate people are not possible given the authority in state affairs, according to the hadith that to leave it to experts. Yamin’s view is very contrast with the current political mechanism. Almost all state institutions were elected through majority vote, which certainly ignore the ‘local moral values’ (indigenous intellectual) for chanelling the real aspirations. Currently, the majority vote is very easy to be spotted by money politics so that breaks aspirations of local wisdom. Therefore, a mechanism to revive the group’s representation through representatives in Assembly to be good reason to restore the potential of local institutions and aspirations purely.
Yamin put final thought as welfare or social justice. The main idea is basically a state objective statement. After the struggle for independence and the Indonesia state is established, then the state through the concept of good governance must integrate the objectives and desires of the Indonesian nation, i.e. social welfare. Later, this idea finally adopted in the state objective (in the preambule of the Constitution 19445) which stated in promoting a general welfare.Literature Cite
http://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mohammad_Yamin http://www.gudangmateri.com/2010/03/biografi-muhammad-yamin.html http://www.leimena.org/B09001-Lahirnya%20Pancasila.pdf http://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rumusan-rumusan_Pancasila#Rumusan_Tertulis Wetik, A. R.. 2010. Lahirnya Pancasila Sebagai Dasar Negara dan Pandangan Hidup Bangsa. Dalam Modul 1. Sub Bidang Studi Pancasila dan Perkembangannya. Pokja Ideologi. Lemhannas, Jakarta